Androgenic alopecia (AGA) is the androgen (male sex hormone)-dependent progressive loss of scalp hair that follows a defined pattern different in men and women. In general, the mechanism of hair loss is the binding of dihudroepiandrosterone (DHT, or weak androgen) to the androgen receptor (AR). DHT is converted to stronger androgens by the enzyme 5 alpha-reductase. In predisposed individuals’ scalps, there are high levels of DHT and AR and lower levels of 5 alpha-reductase.

So here is the perfect storm:                               

  1. High levels of weak androgen (DHT)
  2. High expression of androgen receptors on the surface of the cells in the hair follicles 
  3. Low activity of 5 alpha-reductase.

 

The final result: receptors of the hair-producing cells are saturated with weak androgens and cause hair loss. Current available nonsurgical treatment modalities with proven efficacy are oral finasteride, a competitive inhibitor of type two 5 alpha-reductase, and topical minoxidil, an adenosine-triphosphate-sensitive potassium channel opener which has been reported to stimulate the production of vascular endothelial growth factor.

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In the last 10 years, significant advances have been made in the understanding of the functions of the medicinal signaling cells and micro vesicles. Now there is more evidence that they can be used in the treatment of acute and chronic infections and autoimmune disorders.

Ultrasound versus Lasers in Body Contouring

An individual’s figure can negatively impact and fluctuate with the deteriorating age, fluctuating weight, and pre or post pregnancy and due to the lack of regular exercise. Today, everyone is busy and gets the least time to relax, the amount of stress is increasing day by day and so is the development of fatty tissue. Many people start bothering about their looks and appeal.

Diet and Exercise Resistant Fat Deposits, especially in certain areas, are also a significant health risk.

In the last 10 years, significant advances have been made in the understanding of the functions of the medicinal signaling cells and micro vesicles, as well as the role in fat grafting in cosmetic and reconstructive procedures. The population of this country, especially the aging population, is in demand for less invasive and more effective procedures. In the future, avant-garde groups of surgeons will continue to replace invasive procedures with tremendous down times with minimally invasive alternatives. A perfect example is autologous fat grafting. Although first battled by many, especially the “academic” surgeons and “reputable” societies, it is now the base for evolutionary and Nobel treatments. A lot of the medicinal signaling cell treatments are nothing but advanced fat transfer treatments. Some call them “ hype,” but some called the earth flat not that long ago.

Humans are born with genetically predetermine the number of fat cells. The distribution fat cells in the human body are also genetically coded and vary significantly in different ethnicities and individuals. 

According to the current scientific evidence, no new fat cells are developed after the age of 17-18, sometimes earlier. After that age, the existing fat cells can increase and decrease in volume causing fat gain/loss and weight gain or loss.  

With healthy life, the fat cells release fat into the bloodstream to be used as an energy source. This process is hormone regulated and facilitated by the fat cell receptors which transfer the signal from the hormones to the fat cell. With age, the hormonal levels decrease and the sensitivity of the receptors drops. The result is the collection of fat predominantly in a certain area such as abdomen, flanks, and hips. The fat cells in the area of the abdomen and flanks convert hormones to different forms and dramatically change the hormonal ratios to unfavorable. As a result, the fat deposit becomes resistant to diet and exercise, a vicious circle which can only be interrupted with mechanical removal of fat (surgical or non-surgical) and/or hormonal manipulation (biological hormones). 


Intra-abdominal fat:          
The internal organs of the abdomen are surrounded by fat which serves as an insulation and protection of vital structures. The Omentum- the watchdog of the abdomen is a mesh of connective tissue and fat deposits. With weight gain, the intra-abdominal fat is also increased- typical beer belly in overweight man. More dramatic accumulation of intra-abdominal fat is seen in man than women. The intra-abdominal fat actively participates on hormonal conversion as described in the previous paragraph.  
 
Intra-abdominal fat is not amenable for safe fat reduction as the external fat. Current research shows promising results for developing of substances able to reduce the intra-abdominal fat.          
  
  1. What is BIA-ALCL?

It is a form of Non-Hodgkin T-cell lymphoma which develops in women with breast implants.

  • Behaves differently from the systemic ALCL and resembles skin lymphoma.
  • Grows slowly and has favorable prognosis
  • It Is not breast cancer
  • It occurs more frequently in women with textured breast implants, but it has been found also in women with smooth breast implants.
  • Has been diagnosed in women with saline and silicone breast implants.

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